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Lesson Transcript

Simone:Hi everyone and welcome back to HungarianPod101.com. This is Upper Beginner Hungarian, season 1, lesson 13 - Who Wants to Clean in Hungary? I am Simone.
Gergő:And my name is Gergő. Sziasztok.
Simone:In this lesson you’ll learn how to use some relative clauses.
Gergő:The conversation takes place at the steakhouse.
Simone:It’s between Jenny and Kristóf.
Gergő:They are both young people, so they use informal language.
Simone:Let's listen to the conversation.
Gergő:This season has been all about a young, strong woman making it in a foreign country.
Simone:This season has been all about Jenny ordering people around.
Gergő:Well, shame on you for only noticing that.
Simone:I'm just being Hungarian about it - after all, isn't Hungary a place where people feel it's wrong to keep a household staff?
Gergő:I guess that's true. Employing a cleaning lady or a babysitter still seems like a bourgeois idea for most.
Simone:What do you think might be the reason behind that?
Gergő:I think that in most people's minds, it is a waste of money and as such, a shameful thing. Hungarians are weird about that sort of thing. This is also why there isn't much of a restaurant culture outside cities.
Simone:I've noticed that. Eating out is nearly impossible in small towns.
Gergő:But drinking isn't. Find some consolation in that!
Simone:(laughs) Okay, let’s move on to the vocab then.
Simone:Let’s take a closer look at some of the words and phrases from this lesson.
Gergő:First up is Jaj, már! Try to imitate the tone I used in this sentence.Jaj, már!
Simone:This phrase is often used when one is dissatisfied with the other person's conduct,
Gergő:In English, I would say “Come on now!” or “Don't be like this.”
Simone:Can you use it in a sentence?
Gergő:Jaj már, miért vagy ilyen?
Simone:“Come on now, why are you like this?”
Gergő:Jaj már, miért vagy ilyen? It is informal, needless to say.
Simone:What is the next item?
Gergő:Félbeszakít. The literal translation of this verb is “tear in half.”
Simone:Say again, please.
Simone:The object of this verb is often a person, but in that case the meaning of the sentence is “interrupt,” as in “not wait for your turn to speak.” Unless you're talking about unsuccessful lion tamers, of course.
Gergő:...Our main demographic!
Simone:All right, let's hear a sentence.
Gergő:Anyád mindig félbeszakít (engem).
Simone:“Your mum keeps interrupting (me).”
Gergő:Anyád mindig félbeszakít (engem). Félbe is a prefix. It means “into half.”
Simone:Prefixes have to detach in imperative or negative, we have learned that before.
Gergő:Kérlek ne szakítsd félbe Bélát.
Simone:“Please, don't interrupt Béla talking.”
Gergő:Kérlek ne szakítsd félbe Bélát.
Simone:We have one last vocab item.
Gergő:Akkor mondom is how your superior might start speaking, briefing the employees.
Simone:The literal translation is “I'll say (it) now...” It implies that the speaker will start talking about something that everyone else has been wanting to know, much like Jenny's plan in the dialogue.
Gergő:The translation could be something like “I'll lay it out for you,” “here is the plan” or “here it goes.” Listen to this - Akkor mondom - Ti főztök, én megiszom a sört.
Simone:“So here it goes - You cook and I drink the beer.” Okay, now onto the grammar..
Simone:In this lesson you’ll learn how to use some relative clauses, and how to make sentences with “who” and “where” in the second clause. Gergő, can you give us the key sentence from the lesson?
Gergő:Majd kitakarít, aki akar.
Simone:“Whoever wants to clean will clean.”
Gergő:Majd kitakarít, aki akar. In Hungarian, sub-clauses are often led in by aki or “who” and ahol or where.
Simone:These are called relative pronouns and operate similarly to the English “who” and “where” in the sentences “I saw the man who stole it” and “I've been to the place where you lost your keys.”
Gergő:They are not simple question words, but pronouns leading in the second clause.
Simone:We have heard about them before. There is a formula you can follow to create relative pronouns. Relative pronouns are usually formed by taking a normal question word and prefixing it with a-, “a”.
Gergő:For example you have, ki – aki
Simone:“who” – “who” (relative pronoun)
Gergő:You can also have: hol – ahol
Simone:“where” – “where” (relative pronoun)
Gergő:These two are the topics of this lesson, but other examples might include, melyik – amelyik
Simone:“which” – “which” (relative pronoun)
Gergő:Or the well remembered mi – ami
Simone:“what” – “what” (relative pronoun) These relative pronouns often have some sort of antecedent, a word that they refer to or expand on.
Gergő:I'll give you an example. Az az ember, aki nem dolgozik, nem kap fizetést.
Simone:“The person who doesn't work doesn't get a salary.”
Gergő:Az az ember, aki nem dolgozik, nem kap fizetést. Aki in this sentence is leading in the second clause. It means “the one” or “who.” Then we have two statements about that person: nem dolgozik.
Simone:“Doesn’t work.”
Gergő:And nem kap fizetést.
Simone:“Doesn’t get a salary.”
Simone:Let's take another look at the sentence from the lesson.
Gergő:Majd kitakarít, aki akar.
Simone:“Whoever wants to clean will clean.”
Gergő:In this sentence, aki refers to the person who wants a clean room. Whoever that might be.
Simone:In the dialogue we also had another sentence with a relative clause.
Gergő:Ott, ahol a csirkehús van.
Simone:“The same place, where we keep the chicken.”
Gergő:Ott means “there.” Therefore the literal translation could be “there, where the chicken is.” Ott, ahol a csirkehús van.
Simone:Can you give us another example with that?
Gergő:Ott alszom, ahol a bátyám.
Simone:“I sleep where my older brother does.” Or literally - “I sleep where my older brother.”
Gergő:Ott alszom, ahol a bátyám. Note that in the second clause, we didn't have to add any “empty” verbs like in English how you would add “does.”
Simone:Right, in Hungarian, without a second verb, the implied meaning is that the second subject does the same thing as the first.
Gergő:All right, let's wrap it up here.


Simone:But we'll be back in the next lesson. And in the meantime, make sure you check the lesson notes. Thanks for listening, and we’ll see you next time.