Vocabulary (Review)

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Lesson Transcript

Simone: Hi everyone, and welcome to HungarianPod101.com. This is Lower Beginner Season 1, Lesson 4, A Hectic Schedule in Hungary. I'm Simone.
Csaba: And I am Csaba. Sziasztok!
Simone: In this lesson, we're going to expand our knowledge of conjugation and finally put an end to the conjugation of regular verbs.
Csaba: The dialogue takes place at Anne's apartment.
Simone: And it's between Anne and Balázs.
Csaba: They are good friends, so they use the informal language.
Simone: Let's listen to the conversation.
Simone: Alright, so this is a continuation of the last dialogue.
Csaba: Yes, we'll have to get them out of the apartment at some point. They aren't giving us a lot to work with in the cultural department.
Simone: No problem. I was thinking you could talk about where we can find Hungarian words in the English language.
Csaba: Okay. There are a couple of loanwords in English that come from Hungarian, often via other European languages. The first one that comes to mind is "biro," or ballpoint pen in the US.
Simone: Named after the inventor László Bíró.
Csaba: Also, the words "shako" and "hussar" come from Hungarian. The original Hungarian pronunciations are csákó and huszár.
Simone: These must have traveled through French.
Csaba: Right. The phrase "itsy-bitsy" is the English pronunciation of ici-pici, meaning "tiny."
Simone: Alright, I had no idea about that one. Neat. Shall we do some ici-pici vocab building?
Csaba: Yes.
Simone: The first word we shall see is
most-ta-ná-ban, mostanában
ta-nít, tanít
hét, hét
fordít, fordít
know, can
tud, tud
tell, say
mond, mond
And last…
csend, csend
Simone: Let's have a closer look at the usage for some of the words and phrases from this lesson.
Csaba: The first word is mostanában, or "nowadays, recently." Since there is no such thing as present perfect tense in Hungarian, you simply have to put this word at the beginning of any kind of present tense sentence.
Simone: Can you give us an example? How do you say "I haven't slept well recently"?
Csaba: Mostanában nem alszom jól. Mostanában nem alszom jól.
Simone: Alright, what else?
Csaba: We've also heard Te mit mondasz?
Simone: "What do you say?"
Csaba: Right, this is an informal way to ask for someone's opinion on a topic that is clear from the previous dialogue.
Simone: What's an example, please?
Csaba: Ez túl drága. Te mit mondasz?
Simone: This is too expensive. What do you think?
Csaba: Ez túl drága. Te mit mondasz?
Simone: Alright, let's go on.
Csaba: Te mit mondasz?
Csaba: One last thing for the vocab section. Anne says to Balázs, "csend" or "silence."
Simone: Isn't that kind of rude?
Csaba: Well, I think she meant it in a funny way. But in more formal situations, this is definitely not the way to be polite.
Simone: So, what else can we teach the listeners?
Csaba: You can say Egy kis csendet kérek.
Simone: This means something like "I'd like a moment of quiet, please. You can use this before you start your speech or at the beginning of a lecture.
Csaba: Well, now on to the grammar.
Simone: In this lesson, we're going to finish up giving you rules about how to conjugate regular verbs.
Csaba: Yes, it doesn't mean that conjugation is out of our lives. But after three lessons of tables and vowels and endings, there will be more practice in the following few lessons.
Simone: So, what are you going to explain in this lesson?
Csaba: We've heard a couple of new verbs in the dialogue. Three of them are particularly important now.
Simone: Let's list the dictionary form for these.
Mond. (Say)
Tanít. (Teach)
Fordít. (Translate)
Simone: What makes these important?
Csaba: Certain verbs conjugate a little bit differently in second person singular and second and third person plural from what we have studied before.
Simone: Let's start with the first one. Second person singular is "you." So, "you say" would be mond plus the ending -sz.
Csaba: That would sound awkward: mondsz. There is no such word in Hungarian. In cases like this, we add a so-called linking vowel that will make the pronunciation easier. Instead of mondsz, you say mondasz.
Simone: Break that down again.
Csaba: The base word is mond, the ending is -sz, and we add the vowel a between them. This vowel is determined by the usual vowel harmony rules. Mondasz.
Simone: And I take it tanít ("teach") and fordít ("translate") are the same.
Csaba: Right. Tanítasz and fordítasz. This linking vowel is necessary in second person singular and second and third person plural. Those endings start with a consonant, and there would be too many consonants clustered.
Simone: All right. Can you give us all of the conjugations for each one?
Csaba: Sure.
Csaba: The first one is: tanítok, tanítasz, tanít, tanítunk, tanítotok, tanítanak.
Simone: This was I teach, you teach, etc.
Csaba: The second is: *fordítok, fordítasz, fordít, fordítunk, fordítotok, fordítanak.
Simone: I translate, you translate, etc.
Csaba: And finally: mondok, mondasz, mond, mondunk, mondotok, mondanak.
Simone: I say, you say, etc.
Simone: So, can you sum this up in one rule?
Csaba: I can try. If a verb ends in -ít (like tanít), or two different consonants (like mond), you have to add a linking vowel between the verb and the ending in second person singular and second and third person plural. The linking vowel is determined by vowel harmony.


Simone: That's it for this lesson. Make sure you check the lesson notes and thanks for listening and be sure to join us next time.
Csaba: Sziasztok!